印度節日探源 – Sankranti
( 豐收節 / 桑格蘭提節 )
右圖是於中囯工作的印裔練習者夢實( 去年 )2006年1月傳來的電子賀卡。圖中美食就是印度人過這節時吃的甜品。
以下插圖來自外國電郵, 2005年在母親大宅搞了一次 Sankrantri 普祭, 插圖拍自當日現埸。
[ 網主註 : 這一點本網編輯不同意，根本是兩個不同日子 ]
- 【 磨 房
论 坛 】http://www.doyouhike.net/forum/57073,0,0,1.html
E.維基百科網 (英文) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makar_Sankranti
Sankranti is a
mid-winter festival of India.
The day celebrates the northward journey of the Sun.
means the day the Sun enters a new zodiac
sign according to Hindu
astrology. There is a Sankranti for every month of the year. Makar
Makar Sankranti is the day the Sun enters Capricorn. The reason why Makar
Sankranti is celebrated more than any other is that it marks the day the Sun
starts moving north and the auspicious half of the year characterised by
increasing daylight begins.
celebration is similar to winter
solstice celebrations in other ancient cultures. Instead of the celebrating
on the day of the Winter Solstice - Makar Sankranti is celebrated on January
14, the day the Sun enters the next zodiac sign according to Hindu
Sankranti is celebrated in regional festivals all over India. Some of the
regional celebrations that take place on Jan 14th are:
or fairs are held on Makar Sankranti the most famous being the Kumbh
Mela, held every 12 years at one of four holy locations, namely Haridwar,
The Magh Mela (or mini-Kumbh Mela held annually at Prayag) and the
Gangasagar Mela (held at the head of the Ganges
River, where it flows into the Bay
festival is celebrated by the flying
of kites in most of northern
Sankranti falls on January 14 on non-leap
years and on January
15 on leap years. It is the only Hindu festival which is based on the Solar
calendar rather than the Lunar
calendar. The day is a holiday in the state
Sankranti is celebrated in Kerala at Sabarimale
where the Makara
Jyothi is visible followed by the Makara Vilakku celebrations.
are flown for most of the day in the region. The objective of this sport is to
cut as many rival kites as possible to attain air superiority. Additionally, a
cut kite may be also picked up by another kite giving the collector a free kite.
shaped kites come in various designs. The thread, known as manja is
sharpened with finely crushed glass pieces. The season also is perfect for
spending a day in a sun. The season is windy, making it ideal for kite flying.
At night special lantern
kites with candles embedded are flown which give the skies an eerie feeling.
Maharashtra, when two Maharashtrians greet each other or visit each other during
Makar Sankranti, they exchange Tilache
Ladoo - a special sweet made for this day. When they give the ladoo to an
elder they do namaskar and say "til gul ghya, ani god god bola" (let
us be sweet to each other and let friendship prevail between us).Til or sesame
seeds is one of the important ingredients in this festival. The married ladies
in Maharashtra arrange "haldi kum kum", an auspicious religious get
together by way of which they call upon their friends and relatives and
distribute sweets and gifts.
aware of the significance of this festival after reading the good compilation by
Ioana of Canada, and email of another India yogi, though we have heard of this
puja in the last 3 years (so far no international puja, so not quite aware of
it). It was generally agreed on Friday to have a small scale of Sankranti Puja
on Saturday 14 Jan at the
about Makar Sankranti Puja (Makar
Sankranti is 'Sankraman' i.e. the day that brings about some change")
is also called as
Shakambari Puja (Goddess
for the vegetable ( Shaka – vegetable & Shakambari Devi
- the goddess of the vegetables
read all about as Shri Mataji requested that we all should know the
importance of this day. And you'll find many answers, and clear indications
about "what to do" on this day, so forget about having a
"worldly" weekend. IT IS SPECIAL, make it so!
(and in the files attached) is sahaj info gathered from the previous
years.. 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 and about the Hebrew/Jewish
attached is a wonderful photo with Shri Mataji from a previous
about Sankranti Day from Shri Mataji's talks:
sent by Hari about Sankranti
Puja, 2003 ..see attached the
"On 14th of January there were about
20 of us at Shri Mataji's daughter's house to celebrate Makar Sankranti Puja. We
started decorating the living hall and after about 2 hours, one could not
recognise the place. We had flowers, fruits and vegetables (This is also known
at Shakambari Devi Puja) and also organised an outside caterer.
, Shri Mataji came and was looking
marvelous and very fresh - like a true Goddess. She talked about the Sun channel. How we should now worship the Sun
and how the Sun protects us during hot summer months.
After this, Shri
Mataji asked us to perform an Aarti and asked if there was a Harmonium
- a very unfortunate situation for us. Then Shri Mataji asked if any one of us
had any questions ?? Of course not!! A lovely small puja! She then asked all of
us to have dinner after the Prasad.
She waited until all of us had had the
Prasad dinner and then we sat around Shri Mataji for 15-20 min. and chatted
about the local state of affairs of the Govt. of Maharashtra - (a new Chief
Minister Sushil Kumar Shinde was today appointed in place of Deshmukh).
We all cleaned up the place and left at about after a most enjoyable Sankranti Puja ever. "
sent about Sankranti
Very interesting the association of this e-mail, the Sakumbhari Devi,
with the Hebrew/Jewish holyday of Tu-Bishvat which also celebrates a special
thanks to the mother earth and the fruits. The holyday is a few weeks away.
Coincidence?????????????? I think not! :)
Jai Shri Mataji !!!
On Friday, I could attend
Makar Sankranti Puja which is
also called as Shri Shakambari Puja,
held Friday night ( 14th January 2005 between
approximately 9.45 to 10.15 ).
It was just Mother’s Divine
love that made it possible for me to
attend this great event. Actually there was
no chance of me being there because
now, So only restricted people are
given a chance to enter the Palace and
do the Puja.
But this time, I got a
chance because of my flute. Before I
could go there, I prayed about my incapabily
and also lack of practice for this
program. But some how it worked out
and ended with ‘’ me attending the
program without performing flute for this
Puja “. This was really miraculous.
When we reached Pratishthan,
there were around 5 more people from Mumbai.
These were the yogis who are Professionals
in the Flower & vegetable decoration.
Since this Puja was offered to the Goddess for the vegetable (
Shaka – vegetable & Shakambari Devi - the goddess of
the vegetables ), these people were
decorating. When I saw this, the
attention just reached Sahasrara without any
efforts.. it was really something great..
apart from this, there were beautiful
ornaments made of Sugar, nicely decorated
bangles & necklace.
We tried to help these
people clearing the garbage etc.
Then we waited for message
from Shri Mataji for Puja.
were called inside. We were taking all
the things inside.. we meditated sitting
outside, in a hall and the trusties and
the cameramen went inside for the Puja.
offered everything to Shri Mataji and She
was very happy to see all People
around and said that She was very happy in
this manner after so many days.
When the cameramen were taking the
Mataji told them to take pictures of
the nice decoration of the Fruits and
Then we came out, offered
pranam to mother and went to kitchen
hall for the dinner.
Please see the pictures below.
it was really fantastic. I was
suppose to write this two days back,
but couldn’t find time to write.
You can forward the pictures
!!! Jai Shri Mataji !!!
==== and general info (not sahaj) about this
Celebration with the 108 names of Shri Surya =================
The Mahabharata Vana Parva, Section III, Translated by Sri Kisari Mohan Ganguli
Brahma - Purana says:
The word aditya also means the sun. The twelve adityas are
nothing but different forms of Surya. Their names are Indra, Dhata, Parjanya,
Tvashta, Pusha, Aryama, Bhaga, Vivasvana, Vishnu, Amashumana, Varuna and Mitra,
As Indra, Surya destroys the enemies of the gods.
As Dhata, he creates living beings.
As Parjanya, he showers down rain.
As Tvashta, he lives in the trees and herbs.
As Pusha, he makes foodgrains grow.
As Aryama, he is in the wind.
As Bhaga, he is in the body of all 0living beings.
As Vivasvana, he is in fire and helps to cook food.
As Vishnu, he destroys the enemies of
As Amshumana, he is again in the wind.
As Varuna, Surya is in the waters and as Mitra, he is in
the moon and in the oceans.
In each month of the year, it is a different
aditya who shines. Indra shines in the month of Ashvina,
Dhata in Kartika , Parjanya in Shravana, Tvashta in Falguna, Pusha in Pousha,
Aryama in Vaishakha, Bhaga in Magha, Vivasvana in Jyaishtha, Vishnu in Chaitra,
Amshumana in Ashada, Varuna in Bhadra and Mitra in Agrahayana. Vishnu has twelve
hundred rays, Aryama one thousand and three hundred, Vivasvana seventy-two,
Amshumana fifteen, Parjanya seventy-two, Varuna one thousand and three hudnred,
Tvashta one thousand and one hundred, Indra two thousand and two hundred, Dhata
eleven hundred, Mitra one thousand and Pusha nine hundred. Apart from the names
of the twelve adityas, Surya has twevle other names as well. These are Aditya,
Savita, Surya, Mihira, Arka, Prabhakara, Martanda, Bhaskara, Bhanu, Chitrabhanu,
Brahma once recounted to the sages the one
hundred and eight sacred names of Surya. The Brahma Purana lists these names and
we reproduce them in nine groups of twelve names each.
(1) Surya, Archana, Bhagavana, Tvashta, Pusha,
(2) Dhata, Prabhakara, Prithivi, Jala, Teja,
Akasha, Vayu, Parayana, Soma, Brihaspati, Shukra, Budha.
(3) Angaraka, Indra, Vivasvana, Diptamshu,
Shuchi, Shouri,Shanaishvara, Brahma, Vishu, Rudra, Skanda, Vaishravana.
(4) Yama, Vaidyuta, Jathara, Agni, Aindhana,
Tejohapti, Dharmadhvaja, Vedakarta, Vedanga, Vedavahana, Krita, Treta.
(5) Dvapara, Kali, Sarvasurashraya, Kala,
Kashtha, Muhurta, Kshapa, Yama, Kshana, Samvatsara, Ashvattha, Kalachakra.
(6) Vibhavasu, Shashvata, Purusha, Yogi,
Vyaktavyakta, Sanatana, Kaladhyaksha, Prajadhyaksha, Vishvakarma, Tamonuda,
(7) Amsha, Jimuta, Jivana, Ariha, Bhutashraya,
Bhutapati, Sarvalokanamaskrita, Shrashta, Samvartaka, Vahni, Sarvadi, Alolupa.
(8) Anata, Kapila, Bhanu, Kamada, Sarvotamukha,
Jaya, Vishala, Varada, Sarvabhutasevita, Mana, Suparna, Bhutadi.
(9) Shighraga, Pranadharana, Dhanvantari,
Dhumaketu, Adideva, Aditinandana, Dvadashatma,
About Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti marks
the commencement of the Sun's journey to the Northern Hemisphere (Makara raasi
), signifying the onset of Uttarayana Punyakalam, and is a day of celebration
all over the country. The day begins with people taking holy dips in the waters
and worshipping the Sun.
period is considered an auspicious time and the veteran Bhishma of Mahabharata
chose to die during this period. Bhishma fell to the arrows of Arjun. With his
boon to choose the time of his death, he waited on a bed of arrows to depart
from this world only during this period. It is believed that those who die in
this period have no rebirth.
The Indo Gangetic
plain begins this day with taking dips in the
Til and Rice
are two important ingredients of this festival. In the rice-eating belt of
Karnataka - men,
women and children attired in colourful tunics visit friends and relatives and
exchange pieces of sugarcane, a mixture of fried til, molasses, pieces of dry
coconut, peanuts and fried gram. The significance of this exchange is that
sweetness should prevail in all the dealings. As part of the festival, cows and
bulls are given a wash and the horns are painted with bright colours and
decorated with garland, and are taken in a procession in the village to the
accompaniment of pipes and drums. In the night a bonfire is lit and the animals
are made to jump over the fire.
It is a big event for
the Tamils and the people of Andhra Pradesh. The Telugus like to call it 'Pedda
Panduga' meaning big festival. The whole event lasts for four days, the
first day Bhogi, the second day Sankranti, the third day Kanuma and the fourth
[ 網主註 / 參考資料::
(3) 錫呂瑪塔吉的相關講話語錄 :
印度浦尼 ( 普勒蒂斯坦大宅 ) 2002年1月14日
Makar Sankranti ( 桑格拉提節 ) 的意思是 “Sankraman”，即是帶來轉變的一天。在這天，太陽開始移向北半球。在印度，所有的節日都是根據月亮的任置而訂定，這就是為甚麽他們的所有節日，每年都在不同的日子。桑格拉提節 ( Makar Sankranti ) 是根據太陽的位置而訂定，這就是這個節日每年都在1月14日慶祝的原因。
桑格拉提節那天表示太陽開始變得比較暖和。太陽的熱力對人類是仁慈的。因著太陽的熱力，我們能行走，能說話。太陽的熱力也令人類憤怒，就是因為這個原因，我們在這一天要吃 jaggery (以棕梠樹汁提煉的粗糖)，以令我們說話甜美。
太陽的熱力負責所有蔬菜以及在地球上的財富。在這天，我們向女神 ( Devi ) 奉獻各種水果和蔬菜，並接受她的祝福。因著太初之母的祝福，大地元素冷卻下來，人類則得到進步。
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